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Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2239; doi:10.3390/s17102239

Finite Element Analysis of Grouting Compactness Monitoring in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers

1
School of Civil Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114, China
2
School of Civil Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

With the development of the post-tensioning technique, prestressed concrete structures have been widely used in civil engineering. To ensure the long-term effectiveness of the prestressed tendon, the grouting quality of the tendon duct is one of the important factors. However, it is still a challenge to monitor the grouting quality of post-tensioning tendon ducts, due to the invisibility of the grouting. The authors’ previous work proposed a real-time method that employed a stress wave-based active sensing approach with piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness of a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct (PTTD). To further understand the piezoceramic induced stress wave propagation in the PTTD with different grouting levels, this paper develops a two-dimensional finite element model for monitoring the grouting compactness of the tendon duct with a piezoceramic transducer. A smart aggregate (SA) developed to utilize one Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducer with marble protection is installed in the center location of the tendon duct as an actuator. Two PZT patches are bonded on the bottom and top surface of the tendon duct as the sensors. The analysis results show that the finite element analysis results are in good agreement with the experimental results, which demonstrates that the finite element analysis is feasible and reliable. For the top half of the specimen, not much stress wave could be detected before the full grouting level, except for negligible signals that may propagate through the walls of the tendon duct. When the tendon duct grouting is at 100%, the stress wave propagates to the top of the specimen, and the displacements are symmetric in both left-right and top-bottom directions before the stress waves reach the boundary. The proposed two-dimensional finite element model has the potential to be implemented to simulate the stress wave propagation principle for monitoring grouting compaction of the post-tensioning tendon duct. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT); smart aggregate (SA); post-tensioning tendon duct (PTTD); grouting compactness; grouting compactness monitoring; finite element model (FEM) Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT); smart aggregate (SA); post-tensioning tendon duct (PTTD); grouting compactness; grouting compactness monitoring; finite element model (FEM)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, T.; Zheng, J.; Huo, L.; Song, G. Finite Element Analysis of Grouting Compactness Monitoring in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers. Sensors 2017, 17, 2239.

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