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Sensors 2017, 17(1), 189; doi:10.3390/s17010189

Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks—Part I: Link Characterization

1
Instituto para el Desarrollo Tecnológico y la Innovación en Comunicaciones (IDeTIC), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC), 35017 Las Palmas, Spain
2
Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicación (ETSIT) – C-303, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Av. Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Plataforma Oceánica de Canarias (PLOCAN), 35214 Telde, Spain
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Pablo Mena-Rodríguez, Pablo Dorta-Naranjo, Gara Quintana, Iván Pérez-Álvarez, Santiago Zazo, Marina Pérez, Laura Cardona and J. Joaquín Hernández. Experimental testbed for seawater channel characterization. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Third Underwater Communications and Networking Conference (UComms), Lerici, Italy, 30 August–1 September 2016.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jaime Lloret Mauri
Received: 7 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract

Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) using electromagnetic (EM) technology in marine shallow waters are examined, not just for environmental monitoring but for further interesting applications. Particularly, the use of EM waves is reconsidered in shallow waters due to the benefits offered in this context, where acoustic and optical technologies have serious disadvantages. Sea water scenario is a harsh environment for radiocommunications, and there is no standard model for the underwater EM channel. The high conductivity of sea water, the effect of seabed and the surface make the behaviour of the channel hard to predict. This justifies the need of link characterization as the first step to approach the development of EM underwater sensor networks. To obtain a reliable link model, measurements and simulations are required. The measuring setup for this purpose is explained and described, as well as the procedures used. Several antennas have been designed and tested in low frequency bands. Agreement between attenuation measurements and simulations at different distances was analysed and made possible the validation of simulation setups and the design of different communications layers of the system. This leads to the second step of this work, where data and routing protocols for the sensor network are examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); electromagnetic; antennas; sea water; measurements; simulations; testbed underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); electromagnetic; antennas; sea water; measurements; simulations; testbed
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Quintana-Díaz, G.; Mena-Rodríguez, P.; Pérez-Álvarez, I.; Jiménez, E.; Dorta-Naranjo, B.-P.; Zazo, S.; Pérez, M.; Quevedo, E.; Cardona, L.; Hernández, J.J. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks—Part I: Link Characterization. Sensors 2017, 17, 189.

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