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Sensors 2017, 17(1), 173; doi:10.3390/s17010173

Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Ultrasound in Liquids with Gas Bubble Agglomerates: Examples of Bubbly-Liquid-Type Acoustic Metamaterials (BLAMMs)

NANLA, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid, Spain
Academic Editors: Dipen N. Sinha and Cristian Pantea
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors)
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Abstract

This work deals with a theoretical analysis about the possibility of using linear and nonlinear acoustic properties to modify ultrasound by adding gas bubbles of determined sizes in a liquid. We use a two-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the effect that one and several monodisperse bubble populations confined in restricted areas of a liquid have on ultrasound by calculating their nonlinear interaction. The filtering of an input ultrasonic pulse performed by a net of bubbly-liquid cells is analyzed. The generation of a low-frequency component from a single cell impinged by a two-frequency harmonic wave is also studied. These effects rely on the particular dispersive character of attenuation and nonlinearity of such bubbly fluids, which can be extremely high near bubble resonance. They allow us to observe how gas bubbles can change acoustic signals. Variations of the bubbly medium parameters induce alterations of the effects undergone by ultrasound. Results suggest that acoustic signals can be manipulated by bubbles. This capacity to achieve the modification and control of sound with oscillating gas bubbles introduces the concept of bubbly-liquid-based acoustic metamaterials (BLAMMs). View Full-Text
Keywords: bubbly liquids; nonlinear acoustics; ultrasound; acoustic metamaterials; filtering; nonlinear frequency mixing; physical acoustics; numerical modeling; bubbly-liquid type acoustic metamaterials bubbly liquids; nonlinear acoustics; ultrasound; acoustic metamaterials; filtering; nonlinear frequency mixing; physical acoustics; numerical modeling; bubbly-liquid type acoustic metamaterials
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vanhille, C. Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Ultrasound in Liquids with Gas Bubble Agglomerates: Examples of Bubbly-Liquid-Type Acoustic Metamaterials (BLAMMs). Sensors 2017, 17, 173.

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