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Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1450; doi:10.3390/s16091450

Planar Microwave Sensor for Theranostic Therapy of Organic Tissue Based on Oval Split Ring Resonators

1
Institute for Microwave Engineering and Photonics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Merckstr. 25, Darmstadt 64283, Germany
2
Terahertz Sensors Group, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Merckstr. 25, Darmstadt 64283, Germany
3
Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Frankfurt am Main 60590, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ferran Martín and Jordi Naqui
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3288 KB, uploaded 8 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Microwave sensors in medical environments play a significant role due to the contact-less and non-invasive sensing mechanism to determine dielectric properties of tissue. In this work, a theranostic sensor based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) is presented that provides two operation modes to detect and treat tumor cells, exemplary in the liver. For the detection mode, resonance frequency changes due to abnormalities are evaluated, and in the treatment mode, microwave ablation is performed. The planar sensor structure can be integrated into a needle like a surgery tool that evokes challenges concerning size limitations and biocompatibility. To meet the size requirements and provide a reasonable operating frequency, properties of oval shaped SRRs are investigated. By elongating the radius of the SRR in one direction, the resonance frequency can be decreased significantly compared to circular SRR by a factor of two below 12 GHz. In order to validate the detection and treatment characteristics of the sensor, full wave simulations and measurements are examined. Clear resonance shifts are detected for loading the sensor structures with phantoms mimicking healthy and malignant tissue. For treatment mode evaluation, ex vivo beef liver tissue was ablated leading to a lesion zone 1.2 cm × 1 cm × 0.3 cm with a three minute exposure of maximum 2.1 W. View Full-Text
Keywords: theranostics; oval split ring resonator; microwave ablation theranostics; oval split ring resonator; microwave ablation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reimann, C.; Puentes, M.; Maasch, M.; Hübner, F.; Bazrafshan, B.; Vogl, T.J.; Damm, C.; Jakoby, R. Planar Microwave Sensor for Theranostic Therapy of Organic Tissue Based on Oval Split Ring Resonators. Sensors 2016, 16, 1450.

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