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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1140; doi:10.3390/s16071140

Evaluation of Deployment Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks at Signalized Intersections

1
School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Tecnologico 64849, Mexico
2
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Public University of Navarre, Pamplona 31006, Spain
3
Mathematical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Institute of Smart Cities, Public University of Navarre, Pamplona 31006, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Mariani
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016

Abstract

With the growing demand of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) for safer and more efficient transportation, research on and development of such vehicular communication systems have increased considerably in the last years. The use of wireless networks in vehicular environments has grown exponentially. However, it is highly important to analyze radio propagation prior to the deployment of a wireless sensor network in such complex scenarios. In this work, the radio wave characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed taking advantage of the existence of traffic light infrastructure has been assessed. By means of an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm, the impact of topology as well as urban morphology of the environment has been analyzed, emulating the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. The complexity of the scenario, which is an intersection city area with traffic lights, vehicles, people, buildings, vegetation and urban environment, makes necessary the channel characterization with accurate models before the deployment of wireless networks. A measurement campaign has been conducted emulating the interaction of the system, in the vicinity of pedestrians as well as nearby vehicles. A real time interactive application has been developed and tested in order to visualize and monitor traffic as well as pedestrian user location and behavior. Results show that the use of deterministic tools in WSN deployment can aid in providing optimal layouts in terms of coverage, capacity and energy efficiency of the network. View Full-Text
Keywords: traffic lights; propagation; wireless sensor networks; ray launching traffic lights; propagation; wireless sensor networks; ray launching
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Azpilicueta, L.; López-Iturri, P.; Aguirre, E.; Martínez, C.; Astrain, J.J.; Villadangos, J.; Falcone, F. Evaluation of Deployment Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks at Signalized Intersections. Sensors 2016, 16, 1140.

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