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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1077; doi:10.3390/s16071077

Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

1
Laboratório de Avaliação e Medição em Petróleo, Departamento de Engenharia de Computação e Automação, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072970, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Automação em Petróleo, Departamento de Engenharia de Petróleo, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59072970, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Hauser
Received: 28 March 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1966 KB, uploaded 13 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. View Full-Text
Keywords: flow sensors; oil and gas industry; multiple-zone water-injection wells; wellbore heat transmission; measurement uncertainty flow sensors; oil and gas industry; multiple-zone water-injection wells; wellbore heat transmission; measurement uncertainty
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reges, J.E.O.; Salazar, A.O.; Maitelli, C.W.S.P.; Carvalho, L.G.; Britto, U.J.B. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles. Sensors 2016, 16, 1077.

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