Next Article in Journal
Filtering Based Adaptive Visual Odometry Sensor Framework Robust to Blurred Images
Next Article in Special Issue
Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning
Previous Article in Journal
Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Correction: Vázquez-Arellano, M., et al. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review. Sensors 2016, 16, 618
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1038; doi:10.3390/s16071038

Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face

1
College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Key Lab of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, 100083 Beijing, China
2
Department of Agricultural Engineering, The University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
3
School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, 100083 Beijing, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon X. Yang
Received: 25 April 2016 / Revised: 19 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 5 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Agriculture)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [12001 KB, uploaded 5 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

For silage production, high bulk density (BD) is critical to minimize aerobic deterioration facilitated by oxygen intrusion. To precisely assess packing quality for bunker silos, there is a desire to visualize the BD distribution within the silage. In this study, a penetrometer-based mapping system was developed. The data processing included filtering of the penetration friction component (PFC) out of the penetration resistance (PR), transfer of the corrected penetration resistance (PRc) to BD, incorporation of Kriged interpolation for data expansion and map generation. The experiment was conducted in a maize bunker silo (width: 8 m, middle height: 3 m). The BD distributions near the bunker silo face were represented using two map groups, one related to horizontal- and the other to vertical-density distribution patterns. We also presented a comparison between the map-based BD results and core sampling data. Agreement between the two measurement approaches (RMSE = 19.175 kg·m−3) demonstrates that the developed penetrometer mapping system may be beneficial for rapid assessment of aerobic deterioration potential in bunker silos. View Full-Text
Keywords: bunker silo; silage; bulk density; penetrometer; measurement; mapping bunker silo; silage; bulk density; penetrometer; measurement; mapping
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, M.; Jungbluth, K.H.; Sun, Y.; Cheng, Q.; Maack, C.; Buescher, W.; Lin, J.; Zhou, H.; Wang, Z. Developing a Penetrometer-Based Mapping System for Visualizing Silage Bulk Density from the Bunker Silo Face. Sensors 2016, 16, 1038.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top