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Sensors 2016, 16(6), 857; doi:10.3390/s16060857

Field Measurements and Numerical Simulations of Temperature and Moisture in Highway Engineering Using a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor

1
School of Traffic & Transportation, Changsha University of Science &Technology, Changsha 410114, China
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
3
Shenzhen Bridge-Doctor Design & Research Institute Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518048, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon X. Yang
Received: 9 April 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 10 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Agriculture)
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Abstract

This paper presents a systematic pioneering study on the use of agricultural-purpose frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors to monitor temperature and moisture of a subgrade in highway extension and reconstruction engineering. The principle of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors and the process for embedding this kind of sensors for subgrade engineering purposes are introduced. Based on field measured weather data, a numerical analysis model for temperature and moisture content in the subgrade’s soil is built. Comparisons of the temperature and moisture data obtained from numerical simulation and FDR-based measurements are conducted. The results show that: (1) the embedding method and process, data acquisition, and remote transmission presented are reasonable; (2) the temperature and moisture changes are coordinated with the atmospheric environment and they are also in close agreement with numerical calculations; (3) the change laws of both are consistent at positions where the subgrade is compacted uniformly. These results suggest that the data measured by the agricultural-purpose FDR sensors are reliable. The findings of this paper enable a new and effective real-time monitoring method for a subgrade’s temperature and moisture changes, and thus broaden the application of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: FDR sensor; highway reconstruction and extension; temperature and moisture; field measurement; numerical simulation FDR sensor; highway reconstruction and extension; temperature and moisture; field measurement; numerical simulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yao, Y.-S.; Zheng, J.-L.; Chen, Z.-S.; Zhang, J.-H.; Li, Y. Field Measurements and Numerical Simulations of Temperature and Moisture in Highway Engineering Using a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor. Sensors 2016, 16, 857.

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