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Sensors 2016, 16(6), 852; doi:10.3390/s16060852

Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose

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1,2,* , 1,2
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1
Guangdong Engineering Research Center of Agricultural Product Cold Chain Logistics, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
College of Engineering, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ki-Hyun Kim
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [827 KB, uploaded 9 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to explore the utility of an electronic nose to detect the quality of litchi fruit stored in different environments. In this study, a PEN3 electronic nose was adopted to test the storage time and hardness of litchi that were stored in three different types of environment (room temperature, refrigerator and controlled-atmosphere). After acquiring data about the hardness of the sample and from the electronic nose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), BP neural network (BPNN) and BP neural network-partial least squares regression (BPNN-PLSR), were employed for data processing. The experimental results showed that the hardness of litchi fruits stored in all three environments decreased during storage. The litchi stored at room temperature had the fastest rate of decrease in hardness, followed by those stored in a refrigerator environment and under a controlled-atmosphere. LDA has a poor ability to classify the storage time of the three environments in which litchi was stored. BPNN can effectively recognize the storage time of litchi stored in a refrigerator and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN classification of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi was poor. CCA results show a significant correlation between electronic nose data and hardness data under the room temperature, and the correlation is more obvious for those under the refrigerator environment and controlled-atmosphere environment. The BPNN-PLSR can effectively predict the hardness of litchi under refrigerator storage conditions and a controlled-atmosphere environment. However, the BPNN-PLSR prediction of the effect of room temperature storage on litchi and global environment storage on litchi were poor. Thus, this experiment proved that an electronic nose can detect the quality of litchi under refrigeratored storage and a controlled-atmosphere environment. These results provide a useful reference for future studies on nondestructive and intelligent monitoring of fruit quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic nose; litchi; quality detection; storage environment; pattern recognition electronic nose; litchi; quality detection; storage environment; pattern recognition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, S.; Lü, E.; Lu, H.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, Y.; Yang, J.; Wang, Y. Quality Detection of Litchi Stored in Different Environments Using an Electronic Nose. Sensors 2016, 16, 852.

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