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Sensors 2016, 16(6), 850; doi:10.3390/s16060850

A Multidisciplinary Approach to High Throughput Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Lassonde School of Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON M3J1P3, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Changzhi Li, Roberto Gómez-García and José-María Muñoz-Ferreras
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Contact Sensing)
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Abstract

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a non-contact, powerful structure-elucidation technique for biochemical analysis. NMR spectroscopy is used extensively in a variety of life science applications including drug discovery. However, existing NMR technology is limited in that it cannot run a large number of experiments simultaneously in one unit. Recent advances in micro-fabrication technologies have attracted the attention of researchers to overcome these limitations and significantly accelerate the drug discovery process by developing the next generation of high-throughput NMR spectrometers using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS). In this paper, we examine this paradigm shift and explore new design strategies for the development of the next generation of high-throughput NMR spectrometers using CMOS technology. A CMOS NMR system consists of an array of high sensitivity micro-coils integrated with interfacing radio-frequency circuits on the same chip. Herein, we first discuss the key challenges and recent advances in the field of CMOS NMR technology, and then a new design strategy is put forward for the design and implementation of highly sensitive and high-throughput CMOS NMR spectrometers. We thereafter discuss the functionality and applicability of the proposed techniques by demonstrating the results. For microelectronic researchers starting to work in the field of CMOS NMR technology, this paper serves as a tutorial with comprehensive review of state-of-the-art technologies and their performance levels. Based on these levels, the CMOS NMR approach offers unique advantages for high resolution, time-sensitive and high-throughput bimolecular analysis required in a variety of life science applications including drug discovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS; low noise amplifier (LNA); Nuclear Magnetic Resonance CMOS; low noise amplifier (LNA); Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pourmodheji, H.; Ghafar-Zadeh, E.; Magierowski, S. A Multidisciplinary Approach to High Throughput Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Sensors 2016, 16, 850.

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