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Sensors 2016, 16(6), 835; doi:10.3390/s16060835

A Power-Efficient Clustering Protocol for Coal Mine Face Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks Under Channel Fading Conditions

School of Information & Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ingrid Moerman, Jeroen Hoebeke and Eli De Poorter
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 7 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) Networks)
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Abstract

This study proposes a novel power-efficient and anti-fading clustering based on a cross-layer that is specific to the time-varying fading characteristics of channels in the monitoring of coal mine faces with wireless sensor networks. The number of active sensor nodes and a sliding window are set up such that the optimal number of cluster heads (CHs) is selected in each round. Based on a stable expected number of CHs, we explore the channel efficiency between nodes and the base station by using a probe frame and the joint surplus energy in assessing the CH selection. Moreover, the sending power of a node in different periods is regulated by the signal fade margin method. The simulation results demonstrate that compared with several common algorithms, the power-efficient and fading-aware clustering with a cross-layer (PEAFC-CL) protocol features a stable network topology and adaptability under signal time-varying fading, which effectively prolongs the lifetime of the network and reduces network packet loss, thus making it more applicable to the complex and variable environment characteristic of a coal mine face. View Full-Text
Keywords: WSNs; power-efficient; clustering; channel fading; cross layer WSNs; power-efficient; clustering; channel fading; cross layer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ren, P.; Qian, J. A Power-Efficient Clustering Protocol for Coal Mine Face Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks Under Channel Fading Conditions. Sensors 2016, 16, 835.

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