Next Article in Journal
A Novel Attitude Estimation Algorithm Based on the Non-Orthogonal Magnetic Sensors
Next Article in Special Issue
Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker
Previous Article in Journal
Recognizing Physisorption and Chemisorption in Carbon Nanotubes Gas Sensors by Double Exponential Fitting of the Response
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 724; doi:10.3390/s16050724

A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

Department of Optics, Faculty of Science, Edificio Mecenas, Campus Universitario de Fuentenueva, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2941 KB, uploaded 19 May 2016]   |  


A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel) and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU−1 and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10−4 and 16.5 × 10−4 RIU. View Full-Text
Keywords: fuel tanks; fuel level; air-fuel-water interfaces; plasmonic sensor; surface plasmon resonance fuel tanks; fuel level; air-fuel-water interfaces; plasmonic sensor; surface plasmon resonance

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pozo, A.M.; Pérez-Ocón, F.; Rabaza, O. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance. Sensors 2016, 16, 724.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top