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Sensors 2016, 16(5), 617; doi:10.3390/s16050617

Photon Counting Imaging with an Electron-Bombarded Pixel Image Sensor

Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edoardo Charbon
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photon-Counting Image Sensors)
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Abstract

Electron-bombarded pixel image sensors, where a single photoelectron is accelerated directly into a CCD or CMOS sensor, allow wide-field imaging at extremely low light levels as they are sensitive enough to detect single photons. This technology allows the detection of up to hundreds or thousands of photon events per frame, depending on the sensor size, and photon event centroiding can be employed to recover resolution lost in the detection process. Unlike photon events from electron-multiplying sensors, the photon events from electron-bombarded sensors have a narrow, acceleration-voltage-dependent pulse height distribution. Thus a gain voltage sweep during exposure in an electron-bombarded sensor could allow photon arrival time determination from the pulse height with sub-frame exposure time resolution. We give a brief overview of our work with electron-bombarded pixel image sensor technology and recent developments in this field for single photon counting imaging, and examples of some applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: photon counting; electron-bombarded sensor; single photon detection; low light level imaging; EBCCD; EBCMOS photon counting; electron-bombarded sensor; single photon detection; low light level imaging; EBCCD; EBCMOS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hirvonen, L.M.; Suhling, K. Photon Counting Imaging with an Electron-Bombarded Pixel Image Sensor. Sensors 2016, 16, 617.

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