Next Article in Journal
Tracking Mobile Sinks via Analysis of Movement Angle Changes in WSNs
Next Article in Special Issue
Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System
Previous Article in Journal
Performance Improvement of Total Ionization Dose Radiation Sensor Devices Using Fluorine-Treated MOHOS
Previous Article in Special Issue
Leaf Chlorophyll Content Estimation of Winter Wheat Based on Visible and Near-Infrared Sensors
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 452; doi:10.3390/s16040452

Non-Invasive Examination of Plant Surfaces by Opto-Electronic Means—Using Russet as a Prime Example

1
INRES-Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
2
Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon X. Yang
Received: 6 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Agriculture)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6479 KB, uploaded 29 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

(1) Background: Many disorders and diseases of agricultural produce change the physical features of surfaces of plant organs; in terms of russet, e.g., of apple or pear, affected fruit peel becomes rough and brown in color, which is associated with changes in light reflection; (2) Objective and Methods: The objective of the present project was an interdisciplinary approach between horticultural science and engineering to examine two new innovative technologies as to their suitability for the non-destructive determination of surfaces of plant organs, using russet as an example, and (a) an industrial luster sensor (type CZ-H72, Keyence, Japan) and (b) a new type of a three-dimensional (3D) color microscope (VHX 5000); (3) Results: In the case of russet, i.e., suberinization of the fruit peel, peel roughness increased by ca. 2.5-fold from ca. 20 µm to ca. 50 µm on affected fruit sections when viewed at 200× magnification. Russeted peel showed significantly reduced luster, with smaller variation than russet-devoid peel with larger variation; (4) Conclusion: These results indicate that both sensors are suitable for biological material and their use for non-contact, non-invasive detection of surface disorders on agricultural produce such as russet may be a very powerful tool for many applications in agriculture and beyond in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D colour microscopy; glossiness; light reflection; luster sensor technology; russet; non-invasive technology; plant surface feature 3D colour microscopy; glossiness; light reflection; luster sensor technology; russet; non-invasive technology; plant surface feature
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Klemm, M.; Röttger, O.; Damerow, L.; Blanke, M. Non-Invasive Examination of Plant Surfaces by Opto-Electronic Means—Using Russet as a Prime Example. Sensors 2016, 16, 452.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top