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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 438; doi:10.3390/s16040438

An Evaluation of Sensor Performance for Harmful Compounds by Using Photo-Induced Electron Transfer from Photosynthetic Membranes to Electrodes

1
Department of Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194, Japan
2
Research Institute for Environmental Management Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569, Japan
3
Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
4
Institute for Bioproduction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan
Present address: Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Mariani
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
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Abstract

Rapid, simple, and low-cost screening procedures are necessary for the detection of harmful compounds in the effluent that flows out of point sources such as industrial outfall. The present study investigated the effects on a novel sensor of harmful compounds such as KCN, phenol, and herbicides such as 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (atrazine), and 2-N-tert-butyl-4-N-ethyl-6-methylsulfanyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (terbutryn). The sensor employed an electrode system that incorporated the photocurrent of intra-cytoplasmic membranes (so-called chromatophores) prepared from photosynthetic bacteria and linked using carbon paste electrodes. The amperometric curve (photocurrent-time curve) of photo-induced electron transfer from chromatophores of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides to the electrode via an exogenous electron acceptor was composed of two characteristic phases: an abrupt increase in current immediately after illumination (I0), and constant current over time (Ic). Compared with other redox compounds, 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ) was the most useful exogenous electron acceptor in this system. Photo-reduction of DCBQ exhibited Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics, and reduction rates were dependent on the amount of DCBQ and the photon flux intensity. The Ic decreased in the presence of KCN at concentrations over 0.05 μM (=μmol·dm−3). The I0 decreased following the addition of phenol at concentrations over 20 μM. The Ic was affected by terbutryn at concentrations over 10 μM. In contrast, DCMU and atrazine had no effect on either I0 or Ic. The utility of this electrode system for the detection of harmful compounds is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Rhodobacter sphaeroides; chromatophore; photo-induced electron transfer; Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics; carbon paste electrode; harmful compounds Rhodobacter sphaeroides; chromatophore; photo-induced electron transfer; Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics; carbon paste electrode; harmful compounds
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kasuno, M.; Kimura, H.; Yasutomo, H.; Torimura, M.; Murakami, D.; Tsukatani, Y.; Hanada, S.; Matsushita, T.; Tao, H. An Evaluation of Sensor Performance for Harmful Compounds by Using Photo-Induced Electron Transfer from Photosynthetic Membranes to Electrodes. Sensors 2016, 16, 438.

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