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Sensors 2016, 16(3), 408; doi:10.3390/s16030408

Fast Selective Detection of Pyocyanin Using Cyclic Voltammetry

1
Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
2
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Kogle Allé 6, 2970 Hørsholm, Denmark
3
Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
4
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Afsnit 9301, Rigshospitalet, Juliane Maries Vej 22, 2100 København, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 14 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 19 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2529 KB, uploaded 19 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Pyocyanin is a virulence factor uniquely produced by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fast and selective detection of pyocyanin in clinical samples can reveal important information about the presence of this microorganism in patients. Electrochemical sensing of the redox-active pyocyanin is a route to directly quantify pyocyanin in real time and in situ in hospitals and clinics. The selective quantification of pyocyanin is, however, limited by other redox-active compounds existing in human fluids and by other metabolites produced by pathogenic bacteria. Here we present a direct selective method to detect pyocyanin in a complex electroactive environment using commercially available electrodes. It is shown that cyclic voltammetry measurements between −1.0 V to 1.0 V reveal a potential detection window of pyocyanin of 0.58–0.82 V that is unaffected by other redox-active interferents. The linear quantification of pyocyanin has an R2 value of 0.991 across the clinically relevant concentration range of 2–100 µM. The proposed method was tested on human saliva showing a standard deviation of 2.5% ± 1% (n = 5) from the known added pyocyanin concentration to the samples. This inexpensive procedure is suggested for clinical use in monitoring the presence and state of P. aeruginosa infection in patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical detection; pyocyanin; quorum sensing; diagnosis; cyclic voltammetry electrochemical detection; pyocyanin; quorum sensing; diagnosis; cyclic voltammetry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alatraktchi, F.A.; Breum Andersen, S.; Krogh Johansen, H.; Molin, S.; Svendsen, W.E. Fast Selective Detection of Pyocyanin Using Cyclic Voltammetry. Sensors 2016, 16, 408.

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