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Sensors 2016, 16(2), 203; doi:10.3390/s16020203

IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks

1
School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, 76 Hanggongdaehak-ro, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 412-791, Korea
2
Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 25 Saenari-ro, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-816, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2223 KB, uploaded 5 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: positioning system; time-of-arrival; wireless sensor networks; ZigBee positioning system; time-of-arrival; wireless sensor networks; ZigBee
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheon, J.; Hwang, H.; Kim, D.; Jung, Y. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 203.

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