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Sensors 2016, 16(2), 172; doi:10.3390/s16020172

Mobility-Enhanced Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

UTM-MIMOS Centre of Excellence in Telecommunication Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 12 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 29 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mobile Sensor Computing: Theory and Applications)
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Abstract

The emergence of the Internet of Things and the proliferation of mobile wireless devices has brought the area of mobile cognitive radio sensor networks (MCRSN) to the research spot light. Notwithstanding the potentials of CRSNs in terms of opportunistic channel usage for bursty traffic, the effect of the mobility of resource-constrained nodes to route stability, mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectral opportunities and primary user (PU) protection still remain open issues that need to be jointly addressed. To this effect, this paper proposes a mobile reliable geographical forwarding routing (MROR) protocol. MROR provides a robust mobile framework for geographical forwarding that is based on a mobility-induced channel availability model. It presents a comprehensive routing strategy that considers PU activity (to take care of routes that have to be built through PU coverage), PU signal protection (by the introduction of a mobility-induced guard (mguard) distance) and the random mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectrum opportunities (for enhancement of throughput). It also addresses the issue of frequent route maintenance that arises when speeds of the mobile nodes are considered as a routing metric. As a result, simulation has shown the ability of MROR to reduce the route failure rate by about 65% as against other schemes. In addition, further results show that MROR can improve both the throughput and goodput at the sink in an energy-efficient manner that is required in CRSNs as against compared works. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobility; cognitive radio ad hoc wireless networks; cognitive radio sensor network; geographical forwarding; speed; reliable routing; opportunistic routing; routing protocol; virtual clustering mobility; cognitive radio ad hoc wireless networks; cognitive radio sensor network; geographical forwarding; speed; reliable routing; opportunistic routing; routing protocol; virtual clustering
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zubair, S.; Syed Yusoff, S.K.; Fisal, N. Mobility-Enhanced Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 172.

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