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Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2139; doi:10.3390/s16122139

A Real-Time Marker-Based Visual Sensor Based on a FPGA and a Soft Core Processor

Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
Advanced Electronics and Information Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)


This paper introduces a real-time marker-based visual sensor architecture for mobile robot localization and navigation. A hardware acceleration architecture for post video processing system was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The pose calculation algorithm was implemented in a System on Chip (SoC) with an Altera Nios II soft-core processor. For every frame, single pass image segmentation and Feature Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) corner detection were used for extracting the predefined markers with known geometries in FPGA. Coplanar PosIT algorithm was implemented on the Nios II soft-core processor supplied with floating point hardware for accelerating floating point operations. Trigonometric functions have been approximated using Taylor series and cubic approximation using Lagrange polynomials. Inverse square root method has been implemented for approximating square root computations. Real time results have been achieved and pixel streams have been processed on the fly without any need to buffer the input frame for further implementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: coplanar PosIt; FAST corner detection; FPGA; image segmentation; visual sensors coplanar PosIt; FAST corner detection; FPGA; image segmentation; visual sensors

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tayara, H.; Ham, W.; Chong, K.T. A Real-Time Marker-Based Visual Sensor Based on a FPGA and a Soft Core Processor. Sensors 2016, 16, 2139.

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