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Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1967; doi:10.3390/s16111967

Effects of Sampling Conditions and Environmental Factors on Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis by an Electronic Nose Device

1
Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Emma Children’s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Máxima Medical Center, De Run 4600, 5504 DB Veldhoven, The Netherlands
5
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Woosuck Shin and Toshio Itoh
Received: 6 August 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors for Health Care and Medical Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1185 KB, uploaded 23 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Prior to implementation of volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis in clinical practice, substantial challenges, including methodological, biological and analytical difficulties are faced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of several sampling conditions and environmental factors on fecal VOC profiles, analyzed by an electronic nose (eNose). Effects of fecal sample mass, water content, duration of storage at room temperature, fecal sample temperature, number of freeze–thaw cycles and effect of sampling method (rectal swabs vs. fecal samples) on VOC profiles were assessed by analysis of totally 725 fecal samples by means of an eNose (Cyranose320®). Furthermore, fecal VOC profiles of totally 1285 fecal samples from 71 infants born at three different hospitals were compared to assess the influence of center of origin on VOC outcome. We observed that all analyzed variables significantly influenced fecal VOC composition. It was feasible to capture a VOC profile using rectal swabs, although this differed significantly from fecal VOC profiles of similar subjects. In addition, 1285 fecal VOC-profiles could significantly be discriminated based on center of birth. In conclusion, standardization of methodology is necessary before fecal VOC analysis can live up to its potential as diagnostic tool in clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic nose; Cyranose320®; standardization; volatile organic compound; feces; sampling conditions; smell electronic nose; Cyranose320®; standardization; volatile organic compound; feces; sampling conditions; smell
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Berkhout, D.J.C.; Benninga, M.A.; van Stein, R.M.; Brinkman, P.; Niemarkt, H.J.; de Boer, N.K.H.; de Meij, T.G.J. Effects of Sampling Conditions and Environmental Factors on Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis by an Electronic Nose Device. Sensors 2016, 16, 1967.

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