Next Article in Journal
A Multifunctional Sensor in Ternary Solution Using Canonical Correlations for Variable Links Assessment
Next Article in Special Issue
Portable Electronic Tongue Based on Microsensors for the Analysis of Cava Wines
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Application of a Wireless Sensor for Space Charge Density Measurement in an Ultra-High-Voltage, Direct-Current Environment
Previous Article in Special Issue
Discrimination of Apple Liqueurs (Nalewka) Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue, UV-Vis and Raman Spectroscopy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1745; doi:10.3390/s16101745

Chocolate Classification by an Electronic Nose with Pressure Controlled Generated Stimulation

Bioelectronics Section, Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV, Mexico City 07360, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Takeshi Onodera and Kiyoshi Toko
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olfactory and Gustatory Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1945 KB, uploaded 20 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

In this work, we will analyze the response of a Metal Oxide Gas Sensor (MOGS) array to a flow controlled stimulus generated in a pressure controlled canister produced by a homemade olfactometer to build an E-nose. The built E-nose is capable of chocolate identification between the 26 analyzed chocolate bar samples and four features recognition (chocolate type, extra ingredient, sweetener and expiration date status). The data analysis tools used were Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The chocolate identification E-nose average classification rate was of 81.3% with 0.99 accuracy (Acc), 0.86 precision (Prc), 0.84 sensitivity (Sen) and 0.99 specificity (Spe) for test. The chocolate feature recognition E-nose gives a classification rate of 85.36% with 0.96 Acc, 0.86 Prc, 0.85 Sen and 0.96 Spe. In addition, a preliminary sample aging analysis was made. The results prove the pressure controlled generated stimulus is reliable for this type of studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: E-noses; olfactometer; metal oxide gas sensors E-noses; olfactometer; metal oxide gas sensors
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Valdez, L.F.; Gutiérrez, J.M. Chocolate Classification by an Electronic Nose with Pressure Controlled Generated Stimulation. Sensors 2016, 16, 1745.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top