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Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1487; doi:10.3390/s16101487

Adaptive Connectivity Restoration from Node Failure(s) in Wireless Sensor Networks

Academy of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
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Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 19 June 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Recently, there is a growing interest in the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A set of sensor nodes is deployed in order to collectively survey an area of interest and/or perform specific surveillance tasks in some of the applications, such as battlefield reconnaissance. Due to the harsh deployment environments and limited energy supply, nodes may fail, which impacts the connectivity of the whole network. Since a single node failure (cut-vertex) will destroy the connectivity and divide the network into disjoint blocks, most of the existing studies focus on the problem of single node failure. However, the failure of multiple nodes would be a disaster to the whole network and must be repaired effectively. Only few studies are proposed to handle the problem of multiple cut-vertex failures, which is a special case of multiple node failures. Therefore, this paper proposes a comprehensive solution to address the problems of node failure (single and multiple). Collaborative Single Node Failure Restoration algorithm (CSFR) is presented to solve the problem of single node failure only with cooperative communication, but CSFR-M, which is the extension of CSFR, handles the single node failure problem more effectively with node motion. Moreover, Collaborative Connectivity Restoration Algorithm (CCRA) is proposed on the basis of cooperative communication and node maneuverability to restore network connectivity after multiple nodes fail. CSFR-M and CCRA are reactive methods that initiate the connectivity restoration after detecting the node failure(s). In order to further minimize the energy dissipation, CCRA opts to simplify the recovery process by gridding. Moreover, the distance that an individual node needs to travel during recovery is reduced by choosing the nearest suitable candidates. Finally, extensive simulations validate the performance of CSFR, CSFR-M and CCRA. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; cooperative communication; connectivity restoration wireless sensor networks; cooperative communication; connectivity restoration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, H.; Ding, X.; Huang, C.; Wu, X. Adaptive Connectivity Restoration from Node Failure(s) in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 1487.

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