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Sensors 2016, 16(1), 59; doi:10.3390/s16010059

A Deadline-Aware Scheduling and Forwarding Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749, Korea
2
Department of Computer Science, University of Suwon, Gyeonggi 445-743, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 8 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 5 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [476 KB, uploaded 5 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Many applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require energy consumption to be minimized and the data delivered to the sink within a specific delay. A usual solution for reducing energy consumption is duty cycling, in which nodes periodically switch between sleep and active states. By increasing the duty cycle interval, consumed energy can be reduced more. However, a large duty cycle interval causes a long end-to-end (E2E) packet delay. As a result, the requirement of a specific delay bound for packet delivery may not be satisfied. In this paper, we aim at maximizing the duty cycle while still guaranteeing that the packets arrive at the sink with the required probability, i.e., the required delay-constrained success ratio (DCSR) is achieved. In order to meet this objective, we propose a novel scheduling and forwarding scheme, namely the deadline-aware scheduling and forwarding (DASF) algorithm. In DASF, the E2E delay distribution with the given network model and parameters is estimated in order to determine the maximum duty cycle interval, with which the required DCSR is satisfied. Each node independently selects a wake-up time using the selected interval, and packets are forwarded to a node in the potential forwarding set, which is determined based on the distance between nodes and the sink. DASF does not require time synchronization between nodes, and a node does not need to maintain neighboring node information in advance. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can satisfy a required delay-constrained success ratio and outperforms existing algorithms in terms of E2E delay and DCSR. View Full-Text
Keywords: delay bound; duty-cycled wireless sensor networks; routing protocol; geographic forwarding delay bound; duty-cycled wireless sensor networks; routing protocol; geographic forwarding
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dao, T.-N.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J. A Deadline-Aware Scheduling and Forwarding Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 59.

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