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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23653-23666; doi:10.3390/s150923653

Cuffless and Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation from the Heart Sound Signals

Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China
Shenzhen College of Advanced Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China
Key Lab for Health Informatics of Chinese Academy of Sciences (HICAS), Shenzhen 518055, China
Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chon Ki
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 9 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smartphone-Based Sensors for Non-Invasive Physiological Monitoring)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [868 KB, uploaded 17 September 2015]   |  


Cardiovascular disease, like hypertension, is one of the top killers of human life and early detection of cardiovascular disease is of great importance. However, traditional medical devices are often bulky and expensive, and unsuitable for home healthcare. In this paper, we proposed an easy and inexpensive technique to estimate continuous blood pressure from the heart sound signals acquired by the microphone of a smartphone. A cold-pressor experiment was performed in 32 healthy subjects, with a smartphone to acquire heart sound signals and with a commercial device to measure continuous blood pressure. The Fourier spectrum of the second heart sound and the blood pressure were regressed using a support vector machine, and the accuracy of the regression was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. Statistical analysis showed that the mean correlation coefficients between the predicted values from the regression model and the measured values from the commercial device were 0.707, 0.712, and 0.748 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively, and that the mean errors were less than 5 mmHg, with standard deviations less than 8 mmHg. These results suggest that this technique is of potential use for cuffless and continuous blood pressure monitoring and it has promising application in home healthcare services. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood pressure; cross-validation; heart sound; smartphone; support vector machine blood pressure; cross-validation; heart sound; smartphone; support vector machine

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Peng, R.-C.; Yan, W.-R.; Zhang, N.-L.; Lin, W.-H.; Zhou, X.-L.; Zhang, Y.-T. Cuffless and Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation from the Heart Sound Signals. Sensors 2015, 15, 23653-23666.

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