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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 22266-22290; doi:10.3390/s150922266

Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

1
College of Communications Engineering, PLA University of Science and Technology, 88 Houbiaoying Rd., Nanjing 210007, China
2
Institute of China Electronic System Engineering Corporation, 13 Dacheng Rd., Beijing 100141, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Davide Brunelli
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 3 September 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [507 KB, uploaded 3 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote wireless sensor networks; emergency communications; integrated high altitude platform/satellite architecture; path selection; energy-efficient transmissions; link-state advertisement remote wireless sensor networks; emergency communications; integrated high altitude platform/satellite architecture; path selection; energy-efficient transmissions; link-state advertisement
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, F.; Li, H.; Gong, X.; Liu, Q.; Wang, J. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios. Sensors 2015, 15, 22266-22290.

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