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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 22249-22265; doi:10.3390/s150922249

RB Particle Filter Time Synchronization Algorithm Based on the DPM Model

1
College of Communication Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
2
College of Automation Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 29 July 2015 / Revised: 21 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 3 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Time synchronization is essential for node localization, target tracking, data fusion, and various other Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To improve the estimation accuracy of continuous clock offset and skew of mobile nodes in WSNs, we propose a novel time synchronization algorithm, the Rao-Blackwellised (RB) particle filter time synchronization algorithm based on the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) model. In a state-space equation with a linear substructure, state variables are divided into linear and non-linear variables by the RB particle filter algorithm. These two variables can be estimated using Kalman filter and particle filter, respectively, which improves the computational efficiency more so than if only the particle filter was used. In addition, the DPM model is used to describe the distribution of non-deterministic delays and to automatically adjust the number of Gaussian mixture model components based on the observational data. This improves the estimation accuracy of clock offset and skew, which allows achieving the time synchronization. The time synchronization performance of this algorithm is also validated by computer simulations and experimental measurements. The results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher time synchronization precision than traditional time synchronization algorithms. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; time synchronization; dirichlet process mixture model; rao-blackwellised particle filter wireless sensor networks; time synchronization; dirichlet process mixture model; rao-blackwellised particle filter
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, C.; Shen, J.; Sun, Y.; Ying, N. RB Particle Filter Time Synchronization Algorithm Based on the DPM Model. Sensors 2015, 15, 22249-22265.

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