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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 21613-21635; doi:10.3390/s150921613

Label-Free Biosensor Imaging on Photonic Crystal Surfaces

1
Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61822, USA
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61822, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen Holler
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4856 KB, uploaded 28 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

We review the development and application of nanostructured photonic crystal surfaces and a hyperspectral reflectance imaging detection instrument which, when used together, represent a new form of optical microscopy that enables label-free, quantitative, and kinetic monitoring of biomaterial interaction with substrate surfaces. Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) has been used to detect broad classes of materials which include dielectric nanoparticles, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, biomolecular layers, and live cells. Because PCEM does not require cytotoxic stains or photobleachable fluorescent dyes, it is especially useful for monitoring the long-term interactions of cells with extracellular matrix surfaces. PCEM is only sensitive to the attachment of cell components within ~200 nm of the photonic crystal surface, which may correspond to the region of most interest for adhesion processes that involve stem cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and metastasis. PCEM has also demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for sensing nanoparticle contrast agents that are roughly the same size as protein molecules, which may enable applications in “digital” diagnostics with single molecule sensing resolution. We will review PCEM’s development history, operating principles, nanostructure design, and imaging modalities that enable tracking of optical scatterers, emitters, absorbers, and centers of dielectric permittivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: photonic crystal; photonic crystal surface; photonic crystal biosensor; photonic crystal enhanced microscopy (PCEM); photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF); label-free bioimaging; nanophotonics; biomaterial detection; live cell imaging; nanoparticle detection; protein-protein binding detection photonic crystal; photonic crystal surface; photonic crystal biosensor; photonic crystal enhanced microscopy (PCEM); photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF); label-free bioimaging; nanophotonics; biomaterial detection; live cell imaging; nanoparticle detection; protein-protein binding detection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhuo, Y.; Cunningham, B.T. Label-Free Biosensor Imaging on Photonic Crystal Surfaces. Sensors 2015, 15, 21613-21635.

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