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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 20967-20989; doi:10.3390/s150920967

Cost-Effective Hyperspectral Transmissometers for Oceanographic Applications: Performance Analysis

1
Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM-CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37–49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
2
Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Assefa M. Melesse
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 16 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2065 KB, uploaded 26 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

The recent development of inexpensive, compact hyperspectral transmissometers broadens the research capabilities of oceanographic applications. These developments have been achieved by incorporating technologies such as micro-spectrometers as detectors as well as light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the new commercial LED-based hyperspectral transmissometer VIPER (TriOS GmbH, Rastede, Germany), which combines different LEDs to emulate the visible light spectrum, aiming at the determination of attenuation coefficients in coastal environments. For this purpose, experimental uncertainties related to the instrument stability, the effect of ambient light and derived temperature, and salinity correction factors are analyzed. Our results identify some issues related to the thermal management of the LEDs and the contamination of ambient light. Furthermore, the performance of VIPER is validated against other transmissometers through simultaneous field measurements. It is demonstrated that VIPER provides a compact and cost-effective alternative for beam attenuation measurements in coastal waters, but it requires the consideration of several optimizations. View Full-Text
Keywords: beam transmissometer; hyperspectral; cost-effective; compact; light emitting diodes; uncertainties assessment; thermal management beam transmissometer; hyperspectral; cost-effective; compact; light emitting diodes; uncertainties assessment; thermal management
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramírez-Pérez, M.; Röttgers, R.; Torrecilla, E.; Piera, J. Cost-Effective Hyperspectral Transmissometers for Oceanographic Applications: Performance Analysis. Sensors 2015, 15, 20967-20989.

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