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Sensors 2015, 15(6), 12342-12357; doi:10.3390/s150612342

A New, Effective and Low-Cost Three-Dimensional Approach for the Estimation of Upper-Limb Volume

1
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cagliari 09126, Italy
2
Metrology Group of Sardinia Radio Telescope, INAF, Selargius 09047, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 19 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

The aim of this research was to validate a new procedure (SkanLab) for the three-dimensional estimation of total arm volume. SkanLab is based on a single structured-light Kinect sensor (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) and on Skanect (Occipital, San Francisco, CA, USA) and MeshLab (Visual Computing Lab, Pisa, Italy) software. The volume of twelve plastic cylinders was measured using geometry, as the reference, water displacement and SkanLab techniques (two raters and repetitions). The right total arm volume of thirty adults was measured by water displacement (reference) and SkanLab (two raters and repetitions). The bias and limits of agreement (LOA) between techniques were determined using the Bland–Altman method. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the standard error of measurement. The bias of SkanLab in measuring the cylinders volume was −21.9 mL (−5.7%) (LOA: −62.0 to 18.2 mL; −18.1% to 6.7%) and in measuring the volume of arms’ was −9.9 mL (−0.6%) (LOA: −49.6 to 29.8 mL; −2.6% to 1.4%). SkanLab’s intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were very high (ICC >0.99). In conclusion, SkanLab is a fast, safe and low-cost method for assessing total arm volume, with high levels of accuracy and reliability. SkanLab represents a promising tool in clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: accuracy and reliability; upper limb volume; three-dimensional technique; lymphedema accuracy and reliability; upper limb volume; three-dimensional technique; lymphedema
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Buffa, R.; Mereu, E.; Lussu, P.; Succa, V.; Pisanu, T.; Buffa, F.; Marini, E. A New, Effective and Low-Cost Three-Dimensional Approach for the Estimation of Upper-Limb Volume. Sensors 2015, 15, 12342-12357.

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