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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 9681-9702; doi:10.3390/s150509681

Analysis and Experimental Kinematics of a Skid-Steering Wheeled Robot Based on a Laser Scanner Sensor

Robotics Institute, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 11 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

Skid-steering mobile robots are widely used because of their simple mechanism and robustness. However, due to the complex wheel-ground interactions and the kinematic constraints, it is a challenge to understand the kinematics and dynamics of such a robotic platform. In this paper, we develop an analysis and experimental kinematic scheme for a skid-steering wheeled vehicle based-on a laser scanner sensor. The kinematics model is established based on the boundedness of the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICR) of treads on the 2D motion plane. The kinematic parameters (the ICR coefficient , the path curvature variable and robot speed ), including the effect of vehicle dynamics, are introduced to describe the kinematics model. Then, an exact but costly dynamic model is used and the simulation of this model’s stationary response for the vehicle shows a qualitative relationship for the specified parameters and . Moreover, the parameters of the kinematic model are determined based-on a laser scanner localization experimental analysis method with a skid-steering robotic platform, Pioneer P3-AT. The relationship between the ICR coefficient and two physical factors is studied, i.e., the radius of the path curvature and the robot speed . An empirical function-based relationship between the ICR coefficient of the robot and the path parameters is derived. To validate the obtained results, it is empirically demonstrated that the proposed kinematics model significantly improves the dead-reckoning performance of this skid–steering robot. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile robot; laser scanner; skid-steering; instantaneous centers of rotation; experimental kinematics; dynamic model mobile robot; laser scanner; skid-steering; instantaneous centers of rotation; experimental kinematics; dynamic model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, T.; Wu, Y.; Liang, J.; Han, C.; Chen, J.; Zhao, Q. Analysis and Experimental Kinematics of a Skid-Steering Wheeled Robot Based on a Laser Scanner Sensor. Sensors 2015, 15, 9681-9702.

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