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Sensors 2015, 15(5), 11208-11221; doi:10.3390/s150511208

Afocal Optical Flow Sensor for Reducing Vertical Height Sensitivity in Indoor Robot Localization and Navigation

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Automation and Systems Research Institute (ASRI), Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
2
Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center (ISRC), Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kourosh Khoshelham
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Indoor Mapping and Navigation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2787 KB, uploaded 13 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

This paper introduces a novel afocal optical flow sensor (OFS) system for odometry estimation in indoor robotic navigation. The OFS used in computer optical mouse has been adopted for mobile robots because it is not affected by wheel slippage. Vertical height variance is thought to be a dominant factor in systematic error when estimating moving distances in mobile robots driving on uneven surfaces. We propose an approach to mitigate this error by using an afocal (infinite effective focal length) system. We conducted experiments in a linear guide on carpet and three other materials with varying sensor heights from 30 to 50 mm and a moving distance of 80 cm. The same experiments were repeated 10 times. For the proposed afocal OFS module, a 1 mm change in sensor height induces a 0.1% systematic error; for comparison, the error for a conventional fixed-focal-length OFS module is 14.7%. Finally, the proposed afocal OFS module was installed on a mobile robot and tested 10 times on a carpet for distances of 1 m. The average distance estimation error and standard deviation are 0.02% and 17.6%, respectively, whereas those for a conventional OFS module are 4.09% and 25.7%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical flow sensor; indoor robot localization; navigation; dead reckoning optical flow sensor; indoor robot localization; navigation; dead reckoning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yi, D.-H.; Lee, T.-J.; Cho, D.-I. Afocal Optical Flow Sensor for Reducing Vertical Height Sensitivity in Indoor Robot Localization and Navigation. Sensors 2015, 15, 11208-11221.

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