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Sensors 2015, 15(4), 7619-7649; doi:10.3390/s150407619

On the Routing Protocol Influence on the Resilience of Wireless Sensor Networks to Jamming Attacks

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada #2501 Sur, Monterrey, NL 64849, Mexico
2
School of Science and Engineering, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Estado de México, Carretera al lago de Guadalupe Km 3.5, Col. Margarita M. de Juárez, Atizapán 52926, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luciano Lavagno and Mihai T. Lazarescu
Received: 30 November 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [444 KB, uploaded 27 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

In this work, we compare a recently proposed routing protocol, the multi-parent hierarchical (MPH) protocol, with two well-known protocols, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) and dynamic source routing (DSR). For this purpose, we have developed a simulator, which faithfully reifies the workings of a given protocol, considering a fixed, reconfigurable ad hoc network given by the number and location of participants, and general network conditions. We consider a scenario that can be found in a large number of wireless sensor network applications, a single sink node that collects all of the information generated by the sensors. The metrics used to compare the protocols were the number of packet retransmissions, carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) inner loop retries, the number of nodes answering the queries from the coordinator (sink) node and the energy consumption. We tested the network under ordinary (without attacks) conditions (and combinations thereof) and when it is subject to different types of jamming attacks (in particular, random and reactive jamming attacks), considering several positions for the jammer. Our results report that MPH has a greater ability to tolerate such attacks than DSR and AODV, since it minimizes and encapsulates the network segment under attack. The self-configuring capabilities of MPH derived from a combination of a proactive routes update, on a periodic-time basis, and a reactive behavior provide higher resilience while offering a better performance (overhead and energy consumption) than AODV and DSR, as shown in our simulation results. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; jamming; network resilience; routing protocols; network performance wireless sensor networks; jamming; network resilience; routing protocols; network performance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Del-Valle-Soto, C.; Mex-Perera, C.; Monroy, R.; Nolazco-Flores, J.A. On the Routing Protocol Influence on the Resilience of Wireless Sensor Networks to Jamming Attacks. Sensors 2015, 15, 7619-7649.

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