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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 6549-6559; doi:10.3390/s150306549

Single- and Two-Phase Flow Characterization Using Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

1
Graduate School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Federal University of Technology-Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba 80230-901, Brazil
2
Graduate School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology-Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba 80230-901, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M.N. Passaro
Received: 29 September 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 17 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1586 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Single- and two-phase flow characterization using optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented. The sensor unit consists of the optical fiber Bragg grating positioned transversely to the flow and fixed in the pipe walls. The hydrodynamic pressure applied by the liquid or air/liquid flow to the optical fiber induces deformation that can be detected by the FBG. Given that the applied pressure is directly related to the mass flow, it is possible to establish a relationship using the grating resonance wavelength shift to determine the mass flow when the flow velocity is well known. For two phase flows of air and liquid, there is a significant change in the force applied to the fiber that accounts for the very distinct densities of these substances. As a consequence, the optical fiber deformation and the correspondent grating wavelength shift as a function of the flow will be very different for an air bubble or a liquid slug, allowing their detection as they flow through the pipe. A quasi-distributed sensing tool with 18 sensors evenly spread along the pipe is developed and characterized, making possible the characterization of the flow, as well as the tracking of the bubbles over a large section of the test bed. Results show good agreement with standard measurement methods and open up plenty of opportunities to both laboratory measurement tools and field applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: two-phase flow; single-phase flow; strain sensor; optical fiber Bragg grating two-phase flow; single-phase flow; strain sensor; optical fiber Bragg grating
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baroncini, V.H.; Martelli, C.; da Silva, M.J.; Morales, R.E. Single- and Two-Phase Flow Characterization Using Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings. Sensors 2015, 15, 6549-6559.

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