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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 6009-6032; doi:10.3390/s150306009

Color Filtering Localization for Three-Dimensional Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

1
College of Information Technology, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, China
2
College of Mathematics and Information Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luciano Lavagno and Mihai T. Lazarescu
Received: 7 January 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things)
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Abstract

Accurate localization of mobile nodes has been an important and fundamental problem in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). The detection information returned from a mobile node is meaningful only if its location is known. In this paper, we propose two localization algorithms based on color filtering technology called PCFL and ACFL. PCFL and ACFL aim at collaboratively accomplishing accurate localization of underwater mobile nodes with minimum energy expenditure. They both adopt the overlapping signal region of task anchors which can communicate with the mobile node directly as the current sampling area. PCFL employs the projected distances between each of the task projections and the mobile node, while ACFL adopts the direct distance between each of the task anchors and the mobile node. The proportion factor of distance is also proposed to weight the RGB values. By comparing the nearness degrees of the RGB sequences between the samples and the mobile node, samples can be filtered out. The normalized nearness degrees are considered as the weighted standards to calculate the coordinates of the mobile nodes. The simulation results show that the proposed methods have excellent localization performance and can localize the mobile node in a timely way. The average localization error of PCFL is decreased by about 30.4% compared to the AFLA method. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs); self-localization; color filtering; Red Green Blue (RGB); hierarchical structure underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs); self-localization; color filtering; Red Green Blue (RGB); hierarchical structure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Gao, H.; Wang, W.; Chang, S.; Chen, J. Color Filtering Localization for Three-Dimensional Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors 2015, 15, 6009-6032.

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