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Sensors 2015, 15(3), 5136-5150; doi:10.3390/s150305136

Biosignal Analysis to Assess Mental Stress in Automatic Driving of Trucks: Palmar Perspiration and Masseter Electromyography

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gianluca Paravati and Valentina Gatteschi
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2015 / Accepted: 17 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HCI In Smart Environments)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1271 KB, uploaded 2 March 2015]   |  


Nowadays insight into human-machine interaction is a critical topic with the large-scale development of intelligent vehicles. Biosignal analysis can provide a deeper understanding of driver behaviors that may indicate rationally practical use of the automatic technology. Therefore, this study concentrates on biosignal analysis to quantitatively evaluate mental stress of drivers during automatic driving of trucks, with vehicles set at a closed gap distance apart to reduce air resistance to save energy consumption. By application of two wearable sensor systems, a continuous measurement was realized for palmar perspiration and masseter electromyography, and a biosignal processing method was proposed to assess mental stress levels. In a driving simulator experiment, ten participants completed automatic driving with 4, 8, and 12 m gap distances from the preceding vehicle, and manual driving with about 25 m gap distance as a reference. It was found that mental stress significantly increased when the gap distances decreased, and an abrupt increase in mental stress of drivers was also observed accompanying a sudden change of the gap distance during automatic driving, which corresponded to significantly higher ride discomfort according to subjective reports. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosignal; electromyography; masseter; mental stress; palmar perspiration biosignal; electromyography; masseter; mental stress; palmar perspiration

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zheng, R.; Yamabe, S.; Nakano, K.; Suda, Y. Biosignal Analysis to Assess Mental Stress in Automatic Driving of Trucks: Palmar Perspiration and Masseter Electromyography. Sensors 2015, 15, 5136-5150.

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