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Sensors 2015, 15(12), 30784-30809; doi:10.3390/s151229828

Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences

Department of Geodesy and Geoinformation, Technische Universität Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27-29, Vienna 1040, Austria
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fabio Menna, Fabio Remondino and Hans-Gerd Maas
Received: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 5 December 2015
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Abstract

The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. View Full-Text
Keywords: photogrammetry; video; 3D modeling; bundle adjustment; specular; non-rigid; dynamic; water; sinusoidal wave photogrammetry; video; 3D modeling; bundle adjustment; specular; non-rigid; dynamic; water; sinusoidal wave
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rupnik, E.; Jansa, J.; Pfeifer, N. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences. Sensors 2015, 15, 30784-30809.

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