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Sensors 2015, 15(12), 30716-30735; doi:10.3390/s151229825

The Bubble Box: Towards an Automated Visual Sensor for 3D Analysis and Characterization of Marine Gas Release Sites

1
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel 24148, Germany
2
Department of Computer Science, Kiel University, Kiel 24118, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fabio Remondino, Fabio Menna and Hans-Gerd Maas
Received: 1 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 5 December 2015
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Abstract

Several acoustic and optical techniques have been used for characterizing natural and anthropogenic gas leaks (carbon dioxide, methane) from the ocean floor. Here, single-camera based methods for bubble stream observation have become an important tool, as they help estimating flux and bubble sizes under certain assumptions. However, they record only a projection of a bubble into the camera and therefore cannot capture the full 3D shape, which is particularly important for larger, non-spherical bubbles. The unknown distance of the bubble to the camera (making it appear larger or smaller than expected) as well as refraction at the camera interface introduce extra uncertainties. In this article, we introduce our wide baseline stereo-camera deep-sea sensor bubble box that overcomes these limitations, as it observes bubbles from two orthogonal directions using calibrated cameras. Besides the setup and the hardware of the system, we discuss appropriate calibration and the different automated processing steps deblurring, detection, tracking, and 3D fitting that are crucial to arrive at a 3D ellipsoidal shape and rise speed of each bubble. The obtained values for single bubbles can be aggregated into statistical bubble size distributions or fluxes for extrapolation based on diffusion and dissolution models and large scale acoustic surveys. We demonstrate and evaluate the wide baseline stereo measurement model using a controlled test setup with ground truth information. View Full-Text
Keywords: bubbles; methane; 3D reconstruction; stereo; underwater photogrammetry; flux; size distribution; rise speed bubbles; methane; 3D reconstruction; stereo; underwater photogrammetry; flux; size distribution; rise speed
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jordt, A.; Zelenka, C.; von Deimling, J.S.; Koch, R.; Köser, K. The Bubble Box: Towards an Automated Visual Sensor for 3D Analysis and Characterization of Marine Gas Release Sites. Sensors 2015, 15, 30716-30735.

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