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Sensors 2015, 15(12), 30062-30075; doi:10.3390/s151229787

Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease

1
USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 South Rock Road, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA
2
US Sugar Corp., 111 Ponce de Leon Ave, Clewiston, FL 33400, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 28 September 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

In an earlier study, an electronic tongue system (e-tongue) has been used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an e-tongue system to the main chemicals in orange juice that impact flavor and health benefits and are also impacted by HLB. Orange juice was spiked with sucrose (0.2–5.0 g/100 mL), citric acid (0.1%–3.0% g/100 mL) and potassium chloride (0.1–3.0 g/100 mL) as well as the secondary metabolites nomilin (1–30 µg/mL), limonin (1–30 µg/mL), limonin glucoside (30–200 µg/mL), hesperidin (30–400 µg/mL) and hesperetin (30–400 µg/mL). Performance of Alpha MOS sensor sets #1 (pharmaceutical) and #5 (food) were compared for the same samples, with sensor set #1 generally giving better separation than sensor set #5 for sucrose, sensor set #5 giving better separation for nomilin and limonin, both sets being efficient at separating citric acid, potassium chloride, hesperitin and limonin glucoside, and neither set discriminating hesperidin efficiently. Orange juice made from fruit over the harvest season and from fruit harvested from healthy or HLB-affected trees were separated by harvest maturity, disease state and disease severity. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensor; quality; citrus; sugars; acids; limonoids; flavonoids; huanglongbing; harvest maturity; sensory sensor; quality; citrus; sugars; acids; limonoids; flavonoids; huanglongbing; harvest maturity; sensory
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Raithore, S.; Bai, J.; Plotto, A.; Manthey, J.; Irey, M.; Baldwin, E. Electronic Tongue Response to Chemicals in Orange Juice that Change Concentration in Relation to Harvest Maturity and Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) Disease. Sensors 2015, 15, 30062-30075.

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