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Sensors 2015, 15(10), 25809-25830; doi:10.3390/s151025809

Data Gathering in Delay Tolerant Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Ferry

1
College of Information Technology, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 15551, Al Ain 00971, United Arab Emirates
2
Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 15551, Al Ain 00971, United Arab Emirates
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 16 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 October 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

In delay tolerant WSNs mobile ferries can be used for collecting data from sensor nodes, especially in large-scale networks. Unlike data collection via multi-hop forwarding among the nodes, ferries travel across the sensing field and collect data from sensors. The advantage of using a ferry-based approach is that, it eliminates the need for multi-hop forwarding of data, and as a result energy consumption at the nodes is significantly reduced. However, this increases data delivery latency and as such might not be suitable for all applications. In this paper an efficient data collection algorithm using a ferry node is proposed while considering the overall ferry roundtrip travel time and the overall consumed energy in the network. To minimize the overall roundtrip travel time, we divided the sensing field area into virtual grids based on the assumed sensing range and assigned a checkpoint in each one. A Genetic Algorithm with weight metrics to solve the Travel Sales Man Problem (TSP) and decide on an optimum path for the ferry to collect data is then used. We utilized our previously published node ranking clustering algorithm (NRCA) in each virtual grid and in choosing the location for placing the ferry’s checkpoints. In NRCA the decision of selecting cluster heads is based on their residual energy and their distance from their associated checkpoint which acts as a temporary sink. We simulated the proposed algorithm in MATLAB and showed its performance in terms of the network lifetime, total energy consumption and the total travel time. Moreover, we showed through simulation that nonlinear trajectory achieves a better optimization in term of network lifetime, overall energy consumed and the roundtrip travel time of the ferry compared to linear predetermined trajectory. In additional to that, we compared the performance of your algorithm to other recent algorithms in terms of the network lifetime using same and different initial energy values. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferry protocol; wireless sensor networks; delay tolerance networks; routing protocols; energy efficiency protocols ferry protocol; wireless sensor networks; delay tolerance networks; routing protocols; energy efficiency protocols
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alnuaimi, M.; Shuaib, K.; Alnuaimi, K.; Abdel-Hafez, M. Data Gathering in Delay Tolerant Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Ferry. Sensors 2015, 15, 25809-25830.

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