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Sensors 2015, 15(10), 25793-25808; doi:10.3390/s151025793

Soft Neurological Signs in Childhood by Measurement of Arm Movements Using Acceleration and Angular Velocity Sensors

1
Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka-Shi, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-Machi, Kurume-Shi, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan
3
Graduate School of Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, 942-1 Shimokume, Kato-Shi, Hyogo 673-1494, Japan
4
Faculty of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-Ku, Fukuoka-Shi, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yoshiteru Ishida
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 12 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Japan 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2832 KB, uploaded 12 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Soft neurological signs (SNS) are evident in the motor performance of children and disappear as the child grows up. Therefore SNS are used as criteria for evaluating age-appropriate development of neurological function. The aim of this study was to quantify SNS during arm movement in childhood. In this study, we focused on pronation and supination, which are arm movements included in the SNS examination. Two hundred and twenty-three typically developing children aged 4–12 years (107 boys, 116 girls) and 18 adults aged 21–26 years (16 males, two females) participated in the experiment. To quantify SNS during pronation and supination, we calculated several evaluation index scores: bimanual symmetry, compliance, postural stability, motor speed and mirror movement. These index scores were evaluated using data obtained from sensors attached to the participants’ hands and elbows. Each score increased as age increased. Results obtained using our system showed developmental changes that were consistent with criteria for SNS. We were able to successfully quantify SNS during pronation and supination. These results indicate that it may be possible to use our system as quantitative criteria for evaluating development of neurological function. View Full-Text
Keywords: acceleration and angular velocity sensors; motion analysis; soft neurological signs; pronation; supination; typically developing children acceleration and angular velocity sensors; motion analysis; soft neurological signs; pronation; supination; typically developing children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaneko, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Inomoto, O.; Iramina, K. Soft Neurological Signs in Childhood by Measurement of Arm Movements Using Acceleration and Angular Velocity Sensors. Sensors 2015, 15, 25793-25808.

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