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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 979-994; doi:10.3390/s150100979

An Integrated Backscatter Ultrasound Technique for the Detection of Coronary and Carotid Atherosclerotic Lesions

Department of Cardiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194, Japan
Received: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 7 January 2015
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Abstract

The instability of carotid and coronary plaques has been reported to be associated with acute coronary syndrome, strokes and other cerebrovascular events. Therefore, recognition of the tissue characteristics of carotid and coronary plaques is important to understand and prevent coronary and cerebral artery disease. Recently, an ultrasound integrated backscatter (IB) technique has been developed. The ultrasound IB power ratio is a function of the difference in acoustic characteristic impedance between the medium and target tissue, and the acoustic characteristic impedance is determined by the density of tissue multiplied by the speed of sound. This concept allows for tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques for risk stratification of patients with coronary and cerebral artery disease. Two- and three-dimensional IB color-coded maps for the evaluation of tissue components consist of four major components: fibrous, dense fibrosis, lipid pool and calcification. Although several ultrasound techniques using special mathematical algorithms have been reported, a growing body of literature has shown the reliability and usefulness of the IB technique for the tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques. This review summarizes concepts, experimental procedures, image reliability and the application of the IB technique. Furthermore, the IB technique is compared with other techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound; coronary artery; carotid artery; plaque; tissue; imaging ultrasound; coronary artery; carotid artery; plaque; tissue; imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kawasaki, M. An Integrated Backscatter Ultrasound Technique for the Detection of Coronary and Carotid Atherosclerotic Lesions. Sensors 2015, 15, 979-994.

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