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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 868-879; doi:10.3390/s150100868

Carbon Fiber Ultramicrodic Electrode Electrodeposited with Over-Oxidized Polypyrrole for Amperometric Detection of Vesicular Exocytosis from Pheochromocytoma Cell

1
State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

Vesicular exocytosis is ubiquitous, but it is difficult to detect within the cells’ communication mechanism. For this purpose, a 2 µm ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode was fabricated in this work based on electrodeposition with over-oxidized polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPyox-CFE), which was applied successfully for real-time monitoring of quantal exocytosis from individual pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. PPyox-CFE was evaluated by dopamine (DA) solutions through cyclic voltammetry and amperometry electrochemical methods, and results revealed that PPyox-CFE improved the detection limit of DA. In particular, the sensitivity of DA was improved to 24.55 µA·µM−1·µm−2 using the PPyox-CFE. The ultramicrodic electrode combined with the patch-clamp system was used to detect vesicular exocytosis of DA from individual PC12 cells with 60 mM K+ stimulation. A total of 287 spikes released from 7 PC12 cells were statistically analyzed. The current amplitude (Imax) and the released charge (Q) of the amperometric spikes from the DA release by a stimulated PC12 cell is 45.1 ± 12.5 pA and 0.18 ± 0.04 pC, respectively. Furthermore, on average ~562,000 molecules were released in each vesicular exocytosis. PPyox-CFE, with its capability of detecting vesicular exocytosis, has potential application in neuron communication research. View Full-Text
Keywords: amperometry; ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode; over-oxidized polypyrrolenanoparicle; vesicular exocytosis amperometry; ultramicrodic carbon fiber electrode; over-oxidized polypyrrolenanoparicle; vesicular exocytosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Xu, H.; Song, Y.; Luo, J.; Xu, S.; Zhang, S.; Liu, J.; Cai, X. Carbon Fiber Ultramicrodic Electrode Electrodeposited with Over-Oxidized Polypyrrole for Amperometric Detection of Vesicular Exocytosis from Pheochromocytoma Cell. Sensors 2015, 15, 868-879.

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