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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 733-759; doi:10.3390/s150100733

Modeling and Development of INS-Aided PLLs in a GNSS/INS Deeply-Coupled Hardware Prototype for Dynamic Applications

GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, No 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
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Received: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 4 December 2014 / Published: 5 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

A GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system can improve the satellite signals tracking performance by INS aiding tracking loops under dynamics. However, there was no literature available on the complete modeling of the INS branch in the INS-aided tracking loop, which caused the lack of a theoretical tool to guide the selections of inertial sensors, parameter optimization and quantitative analysis of INS-aided PLLs. This paper makes an effort on the INS branch in modeling and parameter optimization of phase-locked loops (PLLs) based on the scalar-based GNSS/INS deeply-coupled system. It establishes the transfer function between all known error sources and the PLL tracking error, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the candidate inertial measurement unit (IMU) affecting the carrier phase tracking error. Based on that, a steady-state error model is proposed to design INS-aided PLLs and to analyze their tracking performance. Based on the modeling and error analysis, an integrated deeply-coupled hardware prototype is developed, with the optimization of the aiding information. Finally, the performance of the INS-aided PLLs designed based on the proposed steady-state error model is evaluated through the simulation and road tests of the hardware prototype. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS/INS deeply-coupled integration; INS-aided PLLs; PLL tracking error; steady state error model; hardware prototype GNSS/INS deeply-coupled integration; INS-aided PLLs; PLL tracking error; steady state error model; hardware prototype
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, T.; Niu, X.; Ban, Y.; Zhang, H.; Shi, C.; Liu, J. Modeling and Development of INS-Aided PLLs in a GNSS/INS Deeply-Coupled Hardware Prototype for Dynamic Applications. Sensors 2015, 15, 733-759.

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