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Sensors 2015, 15(1), 148-165; doi:10.3390/s150100148

A Novel Ultrasound Technique for Detection of Osteochondral Defects in the Ankle Joint: A Parametric and Feasibility Study

1
Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands
2
Department of Imaging Physics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Lorentzweg 1, Delft 2628 CJ, The Netherlands
3
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Academic Medical Centre (AMC), Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2014 / Accepted: 13 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
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Abstract

(Osteo)chondral defects (OCDs) in the ankle are currently diagnosed with modalities that are not convenient to use in long-term follow-ups. Ultrasound (US) imaging, which is a cost-effective and non-invasive alternative, has limited ability to discriminate OCDs. We aim to develop a new diagnostic technique based on US wave propagation through the ankle joint. The presence of OCDs is identified when a US signal deviates from a reference signal associated with the healthy joint. The feasibility of the proposed technique is studied using experimentally-validated 2D finite-difference time-domain models of the ankle joint. The normalized maximum cross correlation of experiments and simulation was 0.97. Effects of variables relevant to the ankle joint, US transducers and OCDs were evaluated. Variations in joint space width and transducer orientation made noticeable alterations to the reference signal: normalized root mean square error ranged from 6.29% to 65.25% and from 19.59% to 8064.2%, respectively. The results suggest that the new technique could be used for detection of OCDs, if the effects of other parameters (i.e., parameters related to the ankle joint and US transducers) can be reduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: diagnosis; (osteo)chondral defect; ankle joint; joint space; ultrasound propagation; 2D finite-difference time-domain model diagnosis; (osteo)chondral defect; ankle joint; joint space; ultrasound propagation; 2D finite-difference time-domain model
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarkalkan, N.; Loeve, A.J.; van Dongen, K.W.A.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.; Zadpoor, A.A. A Novel Ultrasound Technique for Detection of Osteochondral Defects in the Ankle Joint: A Parametric and Feasibility Study. Sensors 2015, 15, 148-165.

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