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Sensors 2014, 14(9), 16322-16342; doi:10.3390/s140916322

An Improved Method for Dynamic Measurement of Deflections of the Vertical Based on the Maintenance of Attitude Reference

College of Opto-Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Deya Street 109, Changsha 410073, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 26 August 2014 / Published: 3 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Gyroscopes and Navigation Systems)
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A new method for dynamic measurement of deflections of the vertical (DOV) is proposed in this paper. The integration of an inertial navigation system (INS) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is constructed to measure the body’s attitude with respect to the astronomical coordinates. Simultaneously, the attitude with respect to the geodetic coordinates is initially measured by a star sensor under quasi-static condition and then maintained by the laser gyroscope unit (LGU), which is composed of three gyroscopes in the INS, when the vehicle travels along survey lines. Deflections of the vertical are calculated by using the difference between the attitudes with respect to the geodetic coordinates and astronomical coordinates. Moreover, an algorithm for removing the trend error of the vertical deflections is developed with the aid of Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008). In comparison with traditional methods, the new method required less accurate GNSS, because the dynamic acceleration calculation is avoided. The errors of inertial sensors are well resolved in the INS/GNSS integration, which is implemented by a Rauch–Tung–Striebel (RTS) smoother. In addition, a single-axis indexed INS is adopted to improve the observability of the system errors and to restrain the inertial sensor errors. The proposed method is validated by Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that deflections of the vertical can achieve a precision of better than 1″ for a single survey line. The proposed method can be applied to a gravimetry system based on a ground vehicle or ship with a speed lower than 25 m/s. View Full-Text
Keywords: deflections of the vertical; INS/GNSS integration; attitude reference; EGM2008 deflections of the vertical; INS/GNSS integration; attitude reference; EGM2008

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Dai, D.; Wang, X.; Zhan, D.; Huang, Z. An Improved Method for Dynamic Measurement of Deflections of the Vertical Based on the Maintenance of Attitude Reference. Sensors 2014, 14, 16322-16342.

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