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Sensors 2014, 14(9), 15965-15980; doi:10.3390/s140915965
Article

Electrochemical Detection of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Milk Using a Magneto Immunosensor

1
, 1,†, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 24 May 2014; in revised form: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 25 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunosensors 2014)
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Abstract: An amperometric magneto-immunosensor (AMIS) for the detection of residues of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in milk samples is described for the first time. The immunosensor presented combines magnetic beads biomodified with an antibody with a broad recognition profile of fluoroquinolones, a haptenized enzyme and a magnetic graphite–epoxy composite (m-GEC) electrode. After the immunochemical reaction with specific enzyme tracer, the antibody biomodified magnetic beads are easily captured by an electrode made of graphite-epoxy composite containing a magnet, which also acts as transducer for the electrochemical detection. In spite of the complexity of milk, the use of magnetic beads allows elimination of potential interferences caused by the matrix components; hence the AMIS could perform quantitative measurements, directly in these samples, without any additional sample cleanup or extraction step. The immunosensor is able to detect up to seven different fluoroquinolones far below the MRLs defined by the UE for milk; for example ciprofloxacin is detected directly in milk with an IC50 of 0.74 µg/L and a LOD of 0.009 µg/L. This strategy offers great promise for rapid, simple, cost-effective, and on-site analysis fluoroquinolones in complex samples.
Keywords: electrochemical immunosensor; fluoroquinolone antibiotics; antimicrobial residues; magnetic beads; food safety; milk electrochemical immunosensor; fluoroquinolone antibiotics; antimicrobial residues; magnetic beads; food safety; milk
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinacho, D.G.; Sánchez-Baeza, F.; Pividori, M.-I.; Marco, M.-P. Electrochemical Detection of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Milk Using a Magneto Immunosensor. Sensors 2014, 14, 15965-15980.

AMA Style

Pinacho DG, Sánchez-Baeza F, Pividori M-I, Marco M-P. Electrochemical Detection of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Milk Using a Magneto Immunosensor. Sensors. 2014; 14(9):15965-15980.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pinacho, Daniel G.; Sánchez-Baeza, Francisco; Pividori, María-Isabel; Marco, María-Pilar. 2014. "Electrochemical Detection of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Milk Using a Magneto Immunosensor." Sensors 14, no. 9: 15965-15980.



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