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Sensors 2014, 14(8), 14686-14699; doi:10.3390/s140814686

A Novel Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Glass Microballoons Immunosensor: A Tool for Early Diagnosis of Malaria

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, National Science Foundation Center for Next Generation Composites, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70802, USA
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, National Science Foundation Center for Next Generation Composites, Southern University and A & M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1496 KB, uploaded 12 August 2014]   |  

Abstract

This paper presents a novel method for direct detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) antigen using carbon nanofiber (CNF) forests grown on glass microballoons (NMBs). Secondary antibodies specific to PfHRP-2 densely attached to the CNFs exhibit extraordinary ability for the detection of minute concentrations of Plasmodium species. A sandwich immunoassay protocol was employed, where a glass substrate was used to immobilize primary antibodies at designated capture zones. High signal amplification was obtained in both colorimetric and electrical measurements due to the CNFs through specific binding. As a result, it was possible to detect PfHRP-2 levels as low as 0.025 ng/mL concentration in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) using a visual signal within only 1 min of test duration. Lower limits of 0.01 ng/mL was obtained by measuring the electrical resistivity of the capture zone. This method is also highly selective and specific in identifying PfHRP-2 and other Plasmodium species from the same solution. In addition, the stability of the labeling mechanism eliminates the false signals generated by the use of dyes in current malaria rapid diagnostic test kits (MRDTs). Thus, the rapid, sensitive and high signal amplification capabilities of NMBs is a promising tool for early diagnosis of malaria and other infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2; immunosensor; rapid diagnostic tests; ultrasensitive; malaria; carbon nanofiber Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2; immunosensor; rapid diagnostic tests; ultrasensitive; malaria; carbon nanofiber
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gikunoo, E.; Abera, A.; Woldesenbet, E. A Novel Carbon Nanofibers Grown on Glass Microballoons Immunosensor: A Tool for Early Diagnosis of Malaria. Sensors 2014, 14, 14686-14699.

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