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Sensors 2014, 14(7), 11659-11671; doi:10.3390/s140711659
Article

Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

1
, 2
, 3
, 1
, 1
, 1
, 4
, 5
 and 1,*
1 School of Electronic Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Bukgu, 702-701 Daegu, Korea 2 Department of Sensor and Display Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Bukgu, 702-701 Daegu, Korea 3 Center for Functional Devices Fusion Platform, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Bukgu, 702-701 Daegu, Korea 4 Department of Biomedical, School of Medicine, Dankook University, 119, Dandae-ro, Dongnam-gu, cheonan-si, 330-714 Chungnam, Korea 5 Department of Electronics Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-up, Gyeongsang buk-do 712-702, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 25 June 2014 / Published: 1 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Technologies for Sensing Pollution in Air, Water, and Soil)
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Abstract

We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG) provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone). To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt’s dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.
Keywords: volatile organic compounds; side-polished optical-fiber; solvatochromic dye; multi-array; gas-sensing; principal component analysis volatile organic compounds; side-polished optical-fiber; solvatochromic dye; multi-array; gas-sensing; principal component analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.-S.; Yoon, N.-R.; Kang, B.-H.; Lee, S.-W.; Gopalan, S.-A.; Jeong, H.-M.; Lee, S.-H.; Kwon, D.-H.; Kang, S.-W. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds. Sensors 2014, 14, 11659-11671.

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