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Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10895-10928; doi:10.3390/s140610895

The Theory and Fundamentals of Bioimpedance Analysis in Clinical Status Monitoring and Diagnosis of Diseases

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2
Centre for Innovation in Medical Engineering (CIME), Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, 407, Khartoum, Sudan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors and Systems)
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Abstract

Bioimpedance analysis is a noninvasive, low cost and a commonly used approach for body composition measurements and assessment of clinical condition. There are a variety of methods applied for interpretation of measured bioimpedance data and a wide range of utilizations of bioimpedance in body composition estimation and evaluation of clinical status. This paper reviews the main concepts of bioimpedance measurement techniques including the frequency based, the allocation based, bioimpedance vector analysis and the real time bioimpedance analysis systems. Commonly used prediction equations for body composition assessment and influence of anthropometric measurements, gender, ethnic groups, postures, measurements protocols and electrode artifacts in estimated values are also discussed. In addition, this paper also contributes to the deliberations of bioimpedance analysis assessment of abnormal loss in lean body mass and unbalanced shift in body fluids and to the summary of diagnostic usage in different kinds of conditions such as cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and neural and infection diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioimpedance analysis; body composition; clinical status monitoring; diseases diagnostic and prediction bioimpedance analysis; body composition; clinical status monitoring; diseases diagnostic and prediction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Khalil, S.F.; Mohktar, M.S.; Ibrahim, F. The Theory and Fundamentals of Bioimpedance Analysis in Clinical Status Monitoring and Diagnosis of Diseases. Sensors 2014, 14, 10895-10928.

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