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Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10876-10894; doi:10.3390/s140610876

Optical Characteristic Research on Fiber Bragg Gratings Utilizing Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods

Electronic Engineering Department, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 41170, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 April 2014 / Revised: 1 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)


Compared with coupled-mode theory (CMT), which is widely used for studies involving optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), the proposed investigation scheme is visualized, diagrammatic, and simple. This method combines the finite element method (FEM) and eigenmode expansion method (EEM). The function of the FEM is to calculate all guided modes that match the boundary conditions of optical fiber waveguides. Moreover, the FEM is used for implementing power propagation for HE11 in optical fiber devices. How the periodic characteristic of FBG causes this novel scheme to be substantially superior to CMT is explained in detail. Regarding current numerical calculation techniques, the scheme proposed in this paper is the only method capable of the 3D design and analysis of large periodic components. Additionally, unlike CMT, in which deviations exist between the designed wavelength λD and the maximal reflection wavelength λmax, the proposed method performs rapid scans of the periods of optical FBG. Therefore, once the operating wavelength is set for the component design, the maximal reflection wavelength of the final products can be accurately limited to that of the original design, such as λ = 1550 nm. Furthermore, a comparison between the period scan plot and the optical spectra plot for FBG indicated an inverse relationship between the periods and wavelengths. Consequently, this property can be used to predict the final FBG spectra before implementing time-consuming calculations. By employing this novel investigation scheme involving a rigorous design procedure, the graphical and simple calculation method reduces the studying time and professional expertise required for researching and applying optical FBG. View Full-Text
Keywords: fiber Bragg grating; finite element method; eigenmode expansion method fiber Bragg grating; finite element method; eigenmode expansion method

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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He, Y.; Chen, X. Optical Characteristic Research on Fiber Bragg Gratings Utilizing Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods. Sensors 2014, 14, 10876-10894.

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